Sympathomimetics (adrenoagonists indirect action); alkaloid derived from various types of ephedra (Ephedra L.) family efedrovyh (Ephedraceae). Ephedrine, in plants, it is the levorotatory isomer. The synthetically produced racemate, inferior to the activity of the laevorotatory isomer. After the introduction of ephedrine are excited alpha- and beta-blockers: Acting varicose thickening adrenergic efferent fibers, ephedrine promotes the release of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft. In addition, it has a weak stimulatory effect directly on adrenergic receptors. For the main effects of ephedrine is similar to adrenaline. Details
It stimulates the activity of the heart (increasing frequency and strength of contractions), facilitates atrioventricular conduction, increases blood pressure, causes a bronchodilator effect, inhibits intestinal peristalsis, dilates the pupil (without affecting the accommodation and intraocular pressure) increases the tone of the skeletal muscles, causing hyperglycemia.
Unlike adrenaline ephedrine effect develops slowly, but lasts a long time. With repeated administration of ephedrine with a short interval (10-30 minutes) of its pressor effect decreases rapidly – there is tachyphylaxis (addictive), associated with a progressive decrease in norepinephrine reserves varicose bulges. Ephedrine stimulates the central nervous system. Resistant to the action of MAO.
In small quantities, it is metabolized in the liver. The half-life is 3-6 hours. excreted by the kidneys, mainly in unchanged form.
Hypotension during surgery (especially with spinal anesthesia), trauma, hemorrhage, infectious diseases. Bronchial asthma and other obstructive airway disease. Vasomotor and allergic rhinitis, sinusitis (to narrow the blood vessels of the nasal mucosa). Serum sickness, urticaria, and other allergic conditions. Narcolepsy. Enuresis (as a result of stimulating effects on the central nervous system becomes less deep sleep, waking up is facilitated by the appearance of urination). Myasthenia gravis. In ophthalmic practice used to improve pupil with diagnostic purpose. Read more
The dosage regimen
Adults n / k / m or / administered 20-50 mg; Inside – 25-50 mg 2-3 times / day. For topical dosing regime.
The maximum doses: for adults at intake and n / a single dose – 50 mg daily dose – 150 mg.
- Since the cardiovascular system: heart rate, heart rhythm disorders, a significant increase in blood pressure.
- From the digestive system: loss of appetite, and vomiting.
- CNS: agitation, insomnia, tremor of the limbs.
- From the urinary system: difficulty urinating.
- On the part of metabolism: increased sweating.
Atherosclerosis, hypertension, organic heart disease, hyperthyroidism, insomnia. The use of ephedrine during pregnancy and lactation is possible only if the potential benefit to the mother outweighs the potential risk to the fetus or infant.
In order to avoid sleep at night should not be administered containing ephedrine and its products at the end of the day and before bedtime. Ephedrine is inappropriate to use for a long time. Due to the stimulating effect on the central nervous system may be the subject of abuse. Ephedrine as a solution for injection is included in the list of vital drugs.
Ephedrine reduces the effect of opioid analgesics and other means, oppressive central nervous system. In an application with reserpine and MAO inhibitors possible sharp rise in blood pressure, with a non-selective beta-blockers – decrease of bronchodilator action.